State the purpose of the research.



  • State the purpose of the research. (Why did the authors conduct the research?)
  • State the hypothesis or research question.
  • VERY briefly describe the methods used. (Who were the participants? What did the participants do?)
  • State the results of the study. (These should parallel the research question/hypothesis.)
  • State the interpretation of results. (How did the authors explain the results?)

A screaming child runs from a building and is pulled back by a man carrying a gun. A group of onlookers watch the interaction, but no one does anything. Later, talking to a witness, you learn that he assumed nothing was wrong because no one else looked concerned. This person’s assumption is called

41. Steve is working on a painting in his studio. He is so engrossed in this activity that he does not notice that he has missed lunch and dinner, and day has turned into night. Steve is experiencing which of the following?


A. Awe

B. Flow

C. Meaning

D. Thriving


42. The positive psychologist best known for her work on growth vs. fixed mindsets is:


A. Carol Dweck

B. Barbara Fredrickson

C. Carol Ryff

D. Laurie Schreiner


43. Which of the following refers to a strategy used by individuals who do not typically feel anxious in a particular domain and, instead, they feel in control of their own outcomes, set high expectations that are generally congruent with their perceptions of themselves and their past experiences, and avoid think about negative outcomes?


A. Defensive Hope

B. Defensive Hopelessness

C. Strategic Optimism

D. Strategic Pessimism


44. Experts in which field of psychology argue that there is too much overlap between their field and positive psychology (i.e., PP is nothing new).


A. Behavioral Psychology

B. Forensic Psychology

C. Humanistic Psychology

D. Social Psychology


45. The type of stress coping response that emphasizes doing something to change or minimize the stressor is known as:


A. Avoidant-focused Coping

B. Emotion-focused Coping

C. Engagement-focused Coping

D. Problem-focused Coping


46. Greg was at the peak of his performance in baseball, playing shortstop for the L.A. Dodgers and on track to set the team record for the most home runs during a single season, when he was in a car accident that left him paralyzed from the waist down. Although depressed for months about all he lost, he began to see new opportunities for his life that he might not have encountered if he hadn’t had the accident. In fact, he now considers having the accident as key to his personal development and sense of purpose in life. Greg has experienced:


A. Beneficial Loss

B. Post-traumatic Growth

C. Strategic Optimism

D. Resilience


47. During the Intimacy vs. Isolation stage of development, there are several key transitions that occur in a relationship. One of these, the transition to parenthood, typically brings changes to the relationship such as:


A. A greater likelihood of divorce

B. A lower likelihood of adopting traditional gender roles

C. A steeper increase in relationship satisfaction

D. A steeper decrease in relationship satisfaction


48. Stephen Hawking was a visionary physicist, transcending the extreme limitations of his illness (ALS) in order to pursue his groundbreaking theories. Which type of courage did Dr. Hawking display in the face of his illness?


A. Moral Courage

B. Physical Courage

C. Personal Courage

D. Vital Courage


49. Individuals who see the world as a perpetual process not marked by an ideal endpoint, who embrace their mistakes and consider them important turning points that drive continual rediscovery and redefinition of the self, are said to hold a ______________ mentality.


A. Being

B. Becoming

C. Optimistic

D. Pessimistic


50. The theory which suggests that phenomenologically distinct positive emotions (e.g., joy, love) all share a common capacity to expand an individuals’ “momentary thought-action repertoires ” and foster development of their “enduring personal resources” is which of the following?


A. Broaden-and-Build Theory

B. Causal Agency theory

C. Self-determination Theory

D. Virtues in Action Theory

31. A student who believes that her performance on a test is due to luck and not effort is most likely to hold which type of mindset?


A. Expandable

B. Fixed

C. Growth

D. Indolent


32. The pair of researchers best known for their work on goal pursuit—including autonomy levels, motivation types, and self-regulation styles—are which of the following?


A. Diener & Seligman

B. Keyes & Westerhof

C. Seligman & Peterson

D. Ryan & Deci


33. Which psychologist wrote the important book Man’s Search for Meaning?


A. Victor Frankl

B. Martin Heidegger

C. Martin Seligman

D. Harry Stack Sullivan


34. According to Deci and Ryan (2012), self-determination theory suggests that individuals possess three basic psychological needs, which are:


A. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness

B. Autonomy, competence, and virtues

C. Engagement, meaning, and relationships

D. Engagement, drive, and relationships


35. Research shows that happiness is very strongly related to:


A. Education

B. Gender

C. Relationships

D. Wealth


36. Recently there have been efforts to measure at the society level how a population is faring. This means measuring indicators that extend beyond the economic health of a country to include living standards, the quality of education, community vitality, health and mental health, civic engagement, environmental health and sustainability, and access to leisure and cultural activities. One tool that is currently being developed for this purpose is:


A. The Global Index of Well-Being (GLOWING)

B. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

C. The Human Development Index (HDI)

D. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)


37. According to Erikson, the Intimacy vs. Isolation stage of development spans which of the following age ranges?


A. Ages 13 – 18

B. Ages 18 – 40

C. Ages 40 – 65

D. Ages 65 – death


38. Student success in college—defined as full intellectual, social, and emotional engagement in college life—can be reliably measured by which of the following instruments?


A. Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS)

B. Thriving Quotient

C. Strengths Quest

D. Virtues in Action (VIA)


39. A significant contributor to a person’s thriving, and closely related to accomplishment, is which of the following?


A. Extraversion

B. Flow

C. Goal Pursuit

D. Performance Goals


40. Individuals frequently base decisions on how they think future events will make them feel or how they will impact their emotional well-being. This tendency is referred to as which of the following?


A. Affective Forecasting

B. Gaslighting

C. Hedonism

D. Self-determination

21. Which of the following statements about the concept of savoring is FALSE?


A. After the age of 10, females report a greater tendency to savor than males.

B. People in collectivist cultures tend to savor more frequently than those in individualistic cultures.

C. Those with higher levels of trait mindfulness and optimism tend to have a greater perceived capacity to savor.

D. Those with lower levels of guilt  and neuroticism tend to have a greater perceived capacity to savor.


22. According to Martin Heidegger, the most fundamental problem of human existence is:


A. Accomplishment

B. Attachment

C. Emotional Regulation

D. Meaning


23. Kevin has found out that the city water department he works for has been covering up for two years the fact that there is abnormally high levels of lead in the city’s water. Although he knows he could lose his job, he takes his evidence to the Environmental Protection Agency. Kevin is displaying which type of courage with his whistleblowing?


A. Moral Courage

B. Physical Courage

C. Personal Courage

D. Vital Courage


24. The essential elements of intimacy include all of the following EXCEPT:


A. Affection and warmth

B. Emotional attachment

C. Gratitude

D. Trust


25. Many critics of positive psychology attack the research for all of the following EXCEPT:


A. A failure to consider the negative side of positivity

B. A lack of RCTs and replication studies

C. A tendency toward trivial findings

D. An emphasis on qualitative over quantitative research


26. According to the two continua model of mental illness and mental health, the traditional definition of mental health as “the absence of psychopathologies” is too narrow. Therefore, this model holds that mental illness and mental health:


A. Are related, but distinct dimensions

B. Are the equivalent of languishing and flourishing

C. Cannot be experienced at the same time

D. Exist as endpoints on a one-dimensional scale


27. Mihaly Csikzentmihalyi is best known for his work on which of the following?


A. Causal Agency theory

B. Flow Theory

C. Self-determination Theory

D. Virtues in Action Theory


28. Which of the following psychologists is most well-known for her early work in the area of eudaimonic well-being?


A. Carol Dweck

B. Barbara Fredrickson

C. Carol Ryff

D. Laurie Schreiner


29. According to Martin Seligman, the 3 P’s that stunt resilience are personalization, permanence, and:


A. Passion

B. Pervasiveness

C. Pliability

D. Pride


30. Sally tells her boyfriend Ted that she feels hurt when he flirts with other women. Ted laughs and tells Sally that she is being immature and ridiculous. Sally is 8 years younger than Ted, so she questions her own judgment, thinking that maybe Ted has a point. Sally has just experienced which of the following?


A. Defensive Pessimism

B. Empathic Distress

C. Gaslighting

D. Transference

11. A recognizable assembly of people with shared values, cooperating to ensure clear evidence of positive physical, economic, environmental, and social well-being, and who are empowered to affect further prosocial outcomes for all individuals in their area, can be identified as a:


A. Collaborative Community

B. Distressed Community

C. Flourishing Community

D. Resilient Community


12. Which of the following refers to an individual’s psychological state, or the degree to which an individual has confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience?


A. Ego Empowerment Capital

B. Engagement Capital

C. Psychological Capital

D. Social Capital


13. Which of the following most closely aligns with the reason positive psychology was developed?


A. Psychologists were frustrated with the rising numbers of people with depression.

B. Psychologists were reacting to the over-emphasis on what was wrong (vs. right) with people.

C. Psychologists were looking for a different way to understand human differences.

D. Psychologists were concerned about the pseudopsychology of the “feel good” movement.


14. Laurie Schreiner (2018) states that there are four primary pathways to thriving in college that can be gleaned from large-scale research, including all of the following EXCEPT:


A. Academic achievement at the highest levels

B. Campus involvement and peer interaction

C. Frequent, positive interactions with faculty

D. Spirituality and a sense of purpose


15. Which of the following describes the personality of an individual who shows “resourceful adaptation” and is a flexible problem-solver in social, emotional, and cognitive domains?


A. Anomic Extravert

B. Belated Adjuster

C. Ego Resilient

D. Unsettled Undercontroller


16. Rick has been dating Sondra for over 6 months. Even though Sondra constantly criticizes the way he dresses and is impatient when he has to work late or wants to spend time with his parents, Rick is hopeful that Sondra will change once their relationship grows stronger. Rick is displaying:


A. Defensive Hope

B. Defensive Hopelessness

C. Strategic Optimism

D. Strategic Pessimism


17. In granting forgiveness to someone who has harmed you, it is helpful to think about the human qualities of that person and the difficulties that person may have experienced throughout life. This fosters which of the following toward that person?


A. Compassion

B. Empathy

C. Grudge-holding

D. Transference


18. Iggy is walking through his crowded classroom to get to his desk when he stumbles over Rodger’s size 15 foot. Immediately Iggy is enraged, assuming that Rodger tripped him on purpose. Iggy is displaying which of the following?


A. Compassion Fatigue

B. Fight-or-Flight Response

C. Hostile Attribution Bias

D. Vicarious Trauma


19. Seligman’s 5 Pillars of Well-Being includes all of the following EXCEPT:


A. Accomplishment

B. Engagement

C. Flow

D. Meaning


20. Which of the following refers to a positive emotional state that is derived from a set of goals, strategies to attain the goals, and a sense of personal agency in successfully using strategies to attain the goals?


A. Hope

B. Optimism

C. Pessimism

D. Well-being


1.    Choose one of Freud’s ideas that you think is very good and that deserves respect and praise. Defend your choice by carefully explaining why this idea or concept should be applauded.

2.    Choose one of Freud’s ideas that you think is not so good and that deserves little respect and should be thrown out into the dustbin of history. Defend your choice by carefully explaining why this idea or concept should be abandoned.


Provide an overview of the definition of behavior and operational definition for the behavior the student wishes to change (consider using the “Dead Man Test” to help define the behavior)

11. Anthropologist Edward Hall (1983) describes the rules of “social time” as:


A. seldom/never explicit

B. a “silent language”

C. both of the answer options are correct


12. According to your second reading (Levine, 2021):


A. all cultures value some degree of work-life balance

B. time spent on social versus work activities, while at work, does not vary by culture


13. The second reading (Levine, 2021) draws a distinction between “clock time” and “event time”. The following statement is false:


A. It is key under “event time”, that events start at the hour they were planned to start.

B. It is important under “clock time”, that events start at the hour they were planned to start.

C. Mutual consensus regarding time, is important under “event time”.


14. Multitasking is consistent with:


A. clock time

B. present fatalism

C. polychronic time


15. According to the third reading (Tsai, 2021), “universalist” social scientists claimed:


A. emotions are different across cultures are products of evolution

B. emotions are not hard-wired

C. at a fundamental level all humans feel similarly

D. emotions did not evolve as a response to the environment


16. According to the third reading (Tsai, 2021), social constructivism:


A. that knowledge is first created and learned within a social context and is then adopted by individuals.

B. proposes that there are single objective standards, independent of culture, in basic domains such as learning, reasoning, and emotion that are a part of all human experience.


17. As it is presented in the third reading (Tsai, 2021), the universalist perspective is to the social constructivist perspective, as:


A. nature is to nurture, in the “nature versus nurture” debate

B. ethnographic study is to cross-cultural study

C. polychronic time is to monochronic time

D. clock time is to event time


18. Ekman and Friesen (1971), and Ekman et al. (1987), found:


A. participants across cultures surveyed identified emotions on faces as being the same, as did those in other cultures, at below chance levels

B. participants across cultures surveyed identified emotions on faces as being the same, as did those in other cultures, at chance levels

C. participants across cultures surveyed identified emotions on faces as being the same, as did those in other cultures, at greater chance levels


19. According to the third reading (Tsai, 2021), while the physiological aspects of emotional responses appear to be similar across cultures, their accompanying facial expressions are: 


A. more culturally distinctive.

B. less culturally distinctive.


20. According to Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952), cultural ideas are reflected in and reinforced by:


A. institutions

B. practices

C. products

D. all of the above

1. According to class materials video How bad is it …? (Buchtel, 2020), the following is true:


A. within culture differences are almost always bigger than between culture differences

B. between culture differences are almost always bigger than within culture differences


2. According to the first reading (Biswas-Diener & Thin, 2021), culture is:


A. a highly psychological phenomenon

B. is learned

C. can be seen in morality, identity, and gender roles

D. all of the answers provided are true

E. shared among a human grouping


3. Which statement(s) is/are true?


A. cross-cultural psychology compares those from various cultures, via standard measures, moreso than does ethnographic study

B. comparisons between cultures are more difficult to make, via cross-cultural psychological study, versus in ethnographic study

C. cross-cultural psychology tends to be more culturally sensitive than ethnographic study


4. One difference between cultural psychology and cross-cultural psychology, is that research in the cross-cultural psychology analyzes characteristics and behavior across different cultural groups, with an interest in variation as well as human universals while cultural psychology research is more focused on psychological processes within a particular culture. 


A. True

B. False


5. According to the first reading (Biswas-Diener & Thin, 2021), the following were listed as “… features of culture … central to understanding the uniqueness and diversity of the human mind …”:


A. all of the other answers given here are true

B. accumulation- the amount of cultural knowledge increases over time, due to innovations being retained

C. sharing- culture is produced when humans share things such as information and skills, with those with whom they interact

D. patterns- members of the same culture show behavioral or thinking tendencies that can be predicted

E. versatility- culture is changeable and adaptable


6. According to the first reading (Biswas-Diener & Thin, 2021), the following were listed as ways of thinking about culture:


A. shared learning

B. ways of life

C. progressive cultivation

D. none of the other answers given here is true

E. all of the other answers given here are true


7. Triandis (2008) studied culture in terms of collectivism and individualism. Collectivists, more so than individualsts, tend to:


A. emphasize interconnectedness

B. all of the answers given here are true

C. have fewer social freedoms

D. sacrifice personal preferences if these conflict with those of the group


8. Triandis (1995) sub-divides both individualism and collectivism, into “vertical” and “horizontal” dimensions. Choose the true statement, below:


A. in “vertical” cultures, individuals tend to be more equal in status, compared with those in “horizontal” cultures

B. in “horizontal” cultures, individuals tend to be more equal in status, compared with those in “vertical” cultures


9. What is the reason given in the first reading (Biswas-Diener & Thin, 2021) for the same emotion being demonstrated differently, by the members of culture A versus the members of culture B?


A. some cultures are horizontal and others are vertical

B. all cultures are collectivistic and none are individualistic

C. culture is variable

D. culture is learned


10. If all people everywhere naturally act in a certain way, we can say that that behavior is:


A. mandated

B. learned

C. universal

D. taught